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Seattle Criteria Learning Course


Sudden death from intrinsic cardiac conditions remains the leading cause of mortality in athletes during sport. In this context, a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is utilized as a diagnostic tool in the cardiovascular evaluation of both symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes for conditions associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). This course was designed based on a series of articles in the BJSM written by an international expert panel.


The modules start by identifying benign ECG changes seen in athletes, particularly those that reflect physiological electrical and structural remodeling or autonomic nervous system adaptations that occur as a consequence of regular and sustained physical activity. The modules then explore ECG changes that can indicate a variety of cardiomyopathies or primary electrical diseases.


As well as assisting any physician in the context of ECG interpretation and the cardiovascular care of athletes, these modules also provide valuable lessons in interpreting ECGs and highlight dangerous ECG patterns that may be found in any patient.


Learning outcomes

After completing this course you should be able to:

  • Recognize ECG findings in athletes that are part of normal physiological adaptation

  • Recognize ECG changes associated with cardiomyopathies, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and left-ventricular non-compaction (LVNC)

  • Calculate the corrected QT interval using an appropriate formula

  • Recognize common early repolarization patterns in athletes and distinguish these from pathological findings

  • Recognize ECG changes in accessory pathways and supraventricular tachycardia's

  • Describe the evaluation and secondary testing of ECG abnormalities to assess for a pathological cardiac disorder.





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